- Abstract Sculpture
- Nonobjective Sculpture
- Biomorphic Sculpture
- Formalist Sculpture
- Conceptual Sculpture
- Process Sculpture
- Minimal Sculpture
- Post-Minimal Sculpture
- Installation Sculpture
"there are two main kinds of Nonrepresentational sculpture.
Abstract sculpture uses nature not as subject matter to be represented but as a source of formal ideas. For sculptors who work in this way, the forms that are observed in nature serve as a starting point for a kind of creative play, the end products of which may bear little or no resemblance to their original
Nonobjective sculpture is a more completely nonrepresentational form that does not even have a starting point in nature. It arises from a constructive manipulation of the sculptor's generalized, abstract ideas of spatial relations, volume, line, colour, texture, and so on. The approach of the nonobjective sculptor has been likened to that of the composer of music, who manipulates the elements of his art in a similar manner."
"Biomorphic is a term most commonly associated with abstract art to describe a form that is irregular or organic, often derived from shapes found in nature. Biomorphic forms are frequently found in Surrealist art, most notably in the paintings of Yves Tanguy and the sculpture of
- The Thames & Hudson Dictionary of Art Terms
Formalism emphasizes the form or structural qualities of a work over its content or context.
Formalist sculpture's primary emphasis is in the relationships of shapes and the lines those shapes make.
This approach is in contrast to
process and conceptual
sculpture. The objects and installations of
sculpture have an emphasis on
the artifacts resulting from the process of creation.
Conceptual sculpture's primary emphasis is the communication of the idea behind the work.
In conceptual art the "concept is the most important aspect of the work...The idea becomes the machine that makes the art..."
Sol LeWitt "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art", Artforum, summer, 1967
Minimal art is "an abstract style of painting and sculpture developed in New York in the 1960s. In reaction to abstract expressionism, it aims to eliminate self-expression by using geometrical shapes and unmodulated colours."
- The Macmillan Encyclopedia 2001
sense of detachment and reduction to pure, self-referential form is best seen in sculpture. Of particular importance to
Minimal sculpture, by such artists as
Flavin, Donald Judd, and
Morris, is its relation to the space in which it is located, asserting an inextricable bond between the object and its context.
Furthermore, that many sculptures were produced as series demonstrates Minimalism's propensity for subtle permutations of prescribed forms.
Minimal objects (or their components) were not fabricated by the artists themselves but rather by other people working from plans drawn up by the artists."
"By the mid-1960s, another orientation to sculpture emerged out of
Minimalism in the work of such artists as Eva
Serra. Their art is a synthesis of Abstract Expressionist gesture and improvisation coupled with the literal nature of Minimalism. Sometimes named
Post-Minimal, this work tends to be more sensual and organic than Minimal art exploiting the elasticity and tactility of unconventional materials."
"Installation art is art that uses
sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space.
Installation art incorporates almost any media to create a visceral and/or conceptual experience in a particular environment. Materials used in contemporary installation art range from everyday and natural materials to new media such as video, sound, performance, computers and the internet."